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International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies

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International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies

2018, Vol. 5 Issue 3, Part B
Major weeds and their management in Jammu and Kashmir
Author(s): Anil Kumar, Ramphool Puniya, Jai Kumar and Amit Gupta
Abstract: The state of Jammu & Kashmir lies in north-western part of the country has a total geographical area of 22.2 mha excluding the area that is under POK situated along trans-himalayan region that lies between 32°17' and 36°58' North latitude, and between 37°26' and 80°30' East longitude. The weed flora that pose serious threats to endemic biological diversity and are of very offensive nature whether native or of exotic origin are highlighted in this study [1]. The findings were presented in one of the annual review meetings of AICRP on weed management for the first time in order to highlight the scenario of weed infestation in the region. Prominant weed species that are found in various agro-ecosystems of J&K particularly are summarised as follows:
Cultivated fields: Lowland rice- Eichnochloa colonum / crus galli; Fimbristylis miliacea; Ammannia baccifera; Cyperus iria / rotundus; Marsilea Quadrifolia; Potamogeton distinctus; Salvinia Auriculata; Lemna Minor; Kickxia Subsessilis; Erigeron bonariensis. Cyperus, Geranium, Epilobium, Caucalis, Trifolium, Prunella, Lactuca and Cynoglossum. Upland crops- Papaver dubium, Ranunculus arvensis, Lolium Temulentum, Bromus japonicas, Poa pratensis, Cynodon Dactylon, Vulpia Myuros, Polygonum tubulosum, Convolvulus arvensis and Galium aparine. Trianthema Monogyna; Portulaca Oleracea; Ipomoea carnea / hispida; Eleusine Indica; Panicum repens; Sorghum halepense/nitidum; Poa annua; Setaria Glauca; Amaranthus hybridus / graecizans; Euphorbia hirta/emodi; Paspalum conjugatum; Silene conoidea; species of Malva, Geranium, Lycopsis; Cotula anthemoides; Cichorium Intybus; Taraxacum officinale; Fumaria parviflora; Hibiscus trionum; Tribulus Terrestris.
Tourist spots, fruit orchards and grass fields: Robus, Rosa, Rubia, Hedera and Spiraea Oxalis corniculatus, Tribulus Terrestris; Erodium Cicutarium, Gallium aparine, Bellis perennis, Stellaria media, Anagallis arvensis, Eruca sativa, Convolvulus arvensis, Poa Annua / pratensis, Bromus japonicus, Eragrostis spp.; Malva Rotundifolia; Setaria Viridis and Phleum Paniculatum. During summer months Lotus corniculatus, Melilotus alba; species of Trifolium, Lathyrus, Medicago, Sisymbrium, Erigeron, Astragalus; Geranium ocellatum / pratense; Calamintha Clinopodium; Nepeta cataria; Fragaria Vesca; Thymus serpyllum; Rumex Nepalensis and Taraxacum officinale predominate these land pockets. Moreover, dominance of Impatiens amphorata, Rubia cardifolia, Plantago Lanceolata /major, Daucus Carota, Caucalis leptophylla, Cyperus rotundus, Myriactis nepalensis, Siegesbeckia Orientalis and species of Rumex, Polygonum, Abutilon and Viola.
Waste lands: Ranunculus arvensis/ falcatum, Conium maculatum, Silene conoidea, Capsella Bursa Pastoris, Cynoglossum denticulatum, Goldbachia laevigata, Polygonum tubulosum and Anagallis arvensis. Verbascum Thapsus, Cichorium Intybus, Euphorbia helioscopia / thymifolia, Xanthium strumarium, Sisymbrium Loeselii / Sophia, Bupleurum lanceolatum, Galinsoga parviflora, Urtica Dioica, Marrubium vulgare, Cousinia Microcarpa, Centaurea iberica, Digitaria Marginata, Setaria Verticillata and Eragrostis nigra, Coronopus Didymus, Tribulus Terrestris and species of Oxalis, Herniaria, Geranium and Veronica. During August –September, waste lands are full of Artemisia, Cannabis, Caucalis, Chenopodium, Chrozophora, Plantago, Trifolium, Euphorbia, Epilobium, Hartmannia, Gnaphalium, Hypericum, Hibiscus, Datura, Solanum, Amaranthus, Erigeron and Mentha.
Water bodies: Submerged weeds in lakes are Potamogeton Lucens /pectinatus/crispus, Hydrilla verticillata, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum Demersum and Chara spp. Free floating water ferns are Salvinia natans and Lemna spp. Towards the water margins a free floating herb Nymphoides Peltatum with small lotus like leaves is predominant. Besides the side projections and shallow portions are full of tall reeds and cat-tails like that of Phragmites communis and Typha angustata. Chemical control recommendations have been in vague only for some cultivated crops due to lack of appropriate R & D backup and negligible involvement of stakeholders. However, some of the herbicidal management measures practised in the state are:
Rice: Chemical methods: 1) Butachlor granules 5 G @ 30 kg/ha at 4-6 days after transplanting in standing water 2-3 cm deep and do not drain the field for one week. 2) Anilophos + Ethoxy sulfuron @ 0.375+0.015 kg a.i/ha at 10 DAT. 3) Add 3 lt of Butachlor 50 EC in 150 kg sand and broad cast in standing water within 2 DAT.
Maize: Chemical methods: 1) Atrazine @1.0 kg a.i./ha in 800-1000 lts of water should be soil applied just after sowing in sole maize crop; 2) For maize+pulse mixed cropping, apply pre-emergence pendimethalin@ 1.0 kg a.i./ha or pre-plant incorporated fluchloralin@0.75 kg a.i./ha.
Wheat: Chemical methods: for broad spectrum weed control Isoproturon@0.75 kg a.i. + 2,4-D ethyl ester@500 ml/ha may be sprayed with 500-600 lts of water at 30-35 days after sowing; 2) Metribuzin @ 200-250 g a.i./ha should be sprayed at 30-35 DAS where isoproturon is not able to control sitti.
Rapeseed and Mustard: Fluchloralin 0.70 kgha ppi, isoproturon 1.0 kgha pre-em, pendimethalin 1.0 kgha pre-em. Marigold: 2 hand weedings at 20 and 40 days after transplanting or application of trifluralin @ 1.0 kga.i/ha pre plant incorporation (PPI)+1HW (46.2q/ha). Gladiolus: 2 hand weedings at 20 and 40 days after transplanting or application of pendimethalin @ 2kg a.i /ha +1HW. Okra: Fluchlorian @1.0kg a.i/ha PPI, Alachlor @2.0kg a.i/ha pre emergence application (PRE), Trifluralin @ 1.0 kga.i/ha PPI and Oxyflorafen @0.35 kg a.i/ha PRE along with 1-hand weeding.
Pages: 81-94  |  769 Views  26 Downloads
How to cite this article:
Anil Kumar, Ramphool Puniya, Jai Kumar and Amit Gupta. Major weeds and their management in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 2018; 5(3): 81-94.
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