e-ISSN : 2347-2677, p-ISSN : 2394-0522
Kashif Abbas, Mudassir Alam and Shakir Kamal
This review attempts to provide some sagacity of our recent knowledge of water bodies contamination and exposure of heavy metals with aquatic life. Heavy metals are basically known to be naturally occurring compounds that have a relatively high density compared to water. These metallic are considered systemic toxicants that are directly or indirectly linked to induce multiple organ damage and several other severe consequences even at lower levels of exposure. Due to the immense anthropogenic actions these metals bring in large quantities in different environmental compartment and water bodies that cause water quality deterioration ultimately leading to bioaccumulation of hazardous substances. Toxicity depends on various factors viz. dose, route of exposure, chemical species as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed organism. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the high-grade toxicants. It has been reported that the aquatic life is greatly affected with these heavy metals accumulation. Several conducted studies suggest that Fishes dwelling in such contaminated water bodies significantly affect their health and further reduce their nutritive value and flesh quality due to the incorporation of non-essential metals which are not required. Such toxicant potentially hampered the normal physiology and functioning of an organism.
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