e-ISSN : 2347-2677, p-ISSN : 2394-0522
Naz Perween Alam and Bablee Jyoti
Alcohol or ethanol is a widely used psychoactive substance in India, and its abuse is a significant public health concern. Sleep is a homeostatic behavior that is essential for physical and mental well-being. Chronic sleep disturbance negatively affects the body's physiology and has been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. These include obesity, type-2 diabetes, cognitive decline, cardiovascular disease, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Although mainly used on social occasions, alcohol is often used to self-medicate for insomnia and stress. Findings from human and animal studies support that although alcohol ingestion acutely induces rapid sleep onset, it eventually causes, especially its chronic use, significant sleep disturbance and contributes to poor quality of sleep quality. This review discusses the relationship between alcohol consumption and sleep disturbance. We provide an overview of: a) the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse in India; b) the features/architecture of natural sleep and brain circuitry and mechanisms of sleep regulation; c) how alcohol affects natural sleep; d) the molecules and potential brain targets where alcohol act to produce sleep disturbance; and e) the mechanisms that underlie detrimental effects of alcohol on sleep health.
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